Chain-End Functionalized Nanopatterned Polymer Brushes Grown via in Situ Nitroxide Free Radical Exchange.
The patterning of biologically active materials has been accomplished by the use of imprint lithography of functional photopolymer resins to create controlled nanoscale patterns of a cross-linked photopolymer containing embedded initiator groups. Functionalized polymer brushes consisting of polystyrene and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) were grown from these patterned layers by nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Chain-end functionalization of the brush layer was accomplished by nitroxide radical exchange during the polymerization. Accordingly, brush layers terminated by pyrene and biotin functional groups were obtained by exchange with the appropriate alkoxyamines. The presence of pyrene functionality at the chain ends of the brushes was confirmed by fluorescent emission measurements. Fluorescently labeled streptavidin protein was selectively attached with high selectivity to the patterned biotinylated brush layer through biotin−streptavidin interactions. The functionalized polymer grafted surfaces and nanopatterns have been successfully characterized using a fluorescence spectrophotometer, AFM, SEM, confocal microscopy, and water contact angle measurements.